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Freight Management
Freight Management


(Revised 20 November 2017)

Freight management covers everything from unloading or loading on-site to organising freight between sites or venues. Sometimes seen as one of the least ‘exciting’ parts of production, poor logistics can have a negative impact on the safety in the workplace. When things arrive late, or not at all, it will add pressure on production schedules and increase the risks of injuries. Manual handling is still a regular cause of muscular and soft tissue injuries despite good guidance on good manual handling techniques. Forklift truck operations are a ‘high risk’ activity and should be covered by a detailed Safe Work Method Statement. Other considerations are loading areas not effectively separated from General Public access or areas close to moving traffic.

The new Heavy Vehicle National Law and the Chain of Responsibility Law will make an impact on interstate freight movement.

11.1 Referenced documents:

WHS Regulation 2011

Code of Practice: Hazardous manual tasks

Forklift truck – general guide

Heavy Vehicle National Law (HVNL)

11.2 Definitions

Forklift truck, in Schedules 3 and 4, means a powered industrial truck equipped with lifting media made up of a mast and an elevating load carriage to which is attached a pair of fork arms or other arms that can be raised 900mm or more above the ground.

Order-picking forklift truck, in Schedules 3 and 4, means a forklift truck where the operator’s controls are incorporated with the lifting media and elevate with the lifting media.

Manual task means a task requiring the person to use force to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain any person, animal or thing.

Hazardous manual task means a task that involves 1 or more of the following:

  • repetitive or sustained force,
  • high or sudden force,
  • repetitive movement,
  • sustained or awkward posture,
  • exposure to vibration.

Part 4.2 Hazardous manual tasks
Clause 60 Managing risks to health and safety
(1) A person conducting a business or undertaking must manage risks to health and safety relating to a musculoskeletal disorder associated with a hazardous manual task, in accordance with Part 3.1.

Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) means an injury to, or a disease of, the musculoskeletal system, whether occurring suddenly or over a prolonged period of time. It does not include an injury (such as fractures and dislocations) caused by crushing, entrapment or cutting resulting from the mechanical operation of plant. MSD may include conditions such as:

  • sprains and strains of muscles, ligaments and tendons
  • back injuries, including damage to the muscles, tendons, ligaments, spinal discs, nerves, joints and bones
  • joint and bone injuries or degeneration, including injuries to the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, hands and feet
  • nerve injuries or compression (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome)
  • muscular and vascular disorders as a result of hand-arm vibration
  • soft tissue hernias, and
  • chronic pain.

11.3 Manual Handling

Manual Handling, defined as ‘hazardous manual task’ in the Model WHS Regulation, forms an essential part of all work in the entertainment industry. In this chapter we will look specifically at loading and unloading of trucks and distribution of items on site.

The Code of Practice “Hazardous manual tasks” provides practical guidance for persons who have work health and safety duties under the WHS Act and Regulations on the how to eliminate or minimise the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising from performing hazardous manual tasks in the workplace. The Code applies to all types of work and all workplaces covered by the WHS Act and Regulations where manual tasks are carried out and is focussed on eliminating or minimising the risk of musculoskeletal disorders caused by hazardous manual tasks.

Deciding what is ‘reasonably practicable’ to protect people from harm requires weighing up certain matters, including the likelihood of a hazard or risk occurring and the degree of harm that would result, and then making a judgement about what is reasonable in the circumstances.

11.3.1 Consulting your workers

The WHS Act requires that you consult, so far as is reasonably practicable, with workers who carry out work for you who are (or are likely to be) directly affected by a work health and safety matter.

Consultation involves sharing of information, giving workers a reasonable opportunity to express views and taking those views into account before making decisions on health and safety matters.

Your workers know which tools and activities will assist carrying out the tasks safely and may have practical suggestions or potential solutions.

It is important to consult your workers as early as possible when planning to carry out work in new environments. You should also encourage your workers to report problems with manual tasks and signs of discomfort immediately so that risks can be managed before an injury occurs.

11.3.2 Consulting, co-operating and co-ordinating activities with other duty holders

Sometimes you may share responsibility for a health and safety matter with other business operators who are involved in the same activities or who share the same workplace. If you share responsibility for health and safety with another duty holder, you must exchange information to find out who is doing what and work together in a co-operative and co-ordinated way so that all risks are eliminated or minimised as far as reasonably practicable. For example, if you engage a contractor to perform work in your business and the work includes a hazardous manual task, you must discuss the risks associated with the work and what precautions will be taken with the contractor. This includes crewing services, casual labour and volunteers.

11.3.3 Characteristics of Hazardous Manual Tasks

11.3.3.a Force

Force is the amount of muscular effort required to perform a movement or task. Forceful muscular exertions place high loads on the muscles, tendons, joints and discs and are associated with most MSDs.

High force

High force may be exerted by the back, arm or leg muscles or by the hands and fingers. High force occurs in any tasks that:

  • workers describe as very demanding physically
  • workers need help to do because of the effort it requires, or
  • require a stronger person or two persons to do the task.

Examples of the application of high force include:

  • lifting or carrying a heavy object
  • lifting an object which cannot be positioned close to the body
  • pushing or pulling an object that is hard to move or stop

11.3.3.b Posture

Awkward posture

An awkward posture is one in which any part of the body is in an uncomfortable or unnatural position, such as:

  • postures that are unbalanced or asymmetrical, or
  • postures that require extreme joint angles or bending and twisting.

Examples of awkward postures include:

  • working with arms overhead
  • working in a low space, ie. inside a van

11.3.3.c Cold

Working in cold environments such as working outside in cold and/or wet weather can lower body and hand temperature and make handling and gripping objects more difficult. Increased grip force can also result from reduced sensitivity in cold hands.

11.3.4 Heat & Humidity

Working in high temperatures and in hot weather can make handling and gripping objects more difficult. Workers may have difficulty grasping objects due to perspiration on the hands or there may be sudden or unexpected forces due to loads slipping. Humidity may also act to increase discomfort and fatigue.

11.3.4.a Wind

Wind may increase the force required to handle items and reduce control while handling large objects (especially those that are flexible and with a large surface area). When working in windy conditions and in low temperatures that are also windy, the resultant wind chill may lower the body temperature further.

11.3.5 Workload and pace of work

Systems of work, or the way work is organised, can influence the physical and mental demands that a manual task places on a worker. These factors include situations where:

  • the manual task places high physical demands on the worker
  • the worker has no control over the work, and
  • inadequate support and guidance is provided to the worker from supervisors, peers and management.

The fatigue and strain (physical and mental) that may arise from the above aspects of work bring on physiological responses such as increased muscular tension and affect the function of muscles, nerves and blood vessels, increasing the risk of the worker developing an MSD.

Workload or pace of work may increase the risk of MSDs. For example, if your workers report:

  • there is not enough time to finish the work
  • unsuitable or insufficient equipment to perform the task safely
  • insufficient staffing levels or assistance when needed
  • uncertainty about work roles or performance requirements
  • work demands a great deal of attention and concentration
  • they are not taking scheduled rest breaks.

11.3.6 The nature, size, weight or number of things handled

11.3.6.a Loads

Loads that have to be manually handled by workers can increase the potential for overexertion and fatigue through the amount of muscular effort needed to handle them. Important factors include:

  • size, shape and weight of load – loads which are large, bulky, or heavy and cannot be held close to the body or are asymmetric and put uneven forces on the spine
  • loads that are difficult to grip through unsuitable handles or handholds or surface textures, and
  • unstable or unwieldy loads can create sudden high muscle forces and result in overloading of muscles, tendons or discs.

The harder to grip and control a load, the greater the force required to handle it.

11.3.6.b Tools, plant and equipment

Tools that do not match the needs of the task can be a source of risk by not delivering the expected benefits. A pallet-jack is helpful on a hard-surface area but useless on grass or sand. An all-terrain forklift is great for use outdoors but may not be suitable for a carpeted area. Incorrect tools and plant can delay the movement of items and put unnecessary pressure on the schedule.

11.3.7 Workplace environment

The sources of risk in the work environment include:

  • very hot, cold, humid or windy conditions increase the demands placed on the worker, affecting the function of muscles, nerves and blood vessels and increasing fatigue
  • slippery and uneven floor surfaces may increase the exertion required to perform manual tasks due to difficulty maintaining stability, and increased friction when moving objects such as trolleys
  • obstructions related to poor housekeeping and cleaning can lead to awkward postures such as reaching or bending over obstacles, and
  • low or high levels of lighting, as well as glare and reflection may lead to awkward or sustained postures to either improve vision or to avoid glare.

11.3.8 Can mechanical aids be used?

Mechanical equipment may eliminate or reduce the need for workers to lift, carry or support items. A wide range of mechanical aids are available, for example:

  • loading dock levellers or ramps
  • forklifts, trolleys and pallet jacks

Mechanical aids should be:

  • designed to suit the load and the work being done
  • as light as their function will allow
  • adjustable to accommodate a range of users
  • easy to use
  • suited to the environment in which the task is performed
  • located close to the work area so they are readily available but do not cause an obstruction
  • introduced with suitable instruction and training in their use.

When you introduce a mechanical aid into the workplace, you must provide adequate information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure that new arrangements do not introduce any additional risks to workers, for example, a forklift operated in the same workspace used by other workers.

11.3.9 Pushing and pulling loads

Pushing loads is preferable to pulling because it involves less work by the muscles of the lower back, allows maximum use of body weight, less awkward postures and generally allows workers to adopt a forward facing posture, providing better vision in the direction of travel.

Reduce the effort to keep the load moving by:

  • using hand trucks and trolleys that are as lightly constructed as possible, have large wheels or castors that are sized correctly and roll freely
  • using hand trucks or trolleys that have vertical handles, or handles at a height of approximately 1metre
  • ensuring that hand trucks and trolleys are well maintained
  • for pushing, ensuring handles allow the hands to be positioned above waist height and with elbows bent close to the body, and
  • for pulling, ensuring handles allow the hands to be positioned below waist height allowing workers to adopt a standing position rather than being seated so the whole body can be used.

11.3.10 Team handling

Team handling is manual handling of a load by two or more workers. Team handling brings its own risks and requires coordination. It should only be used as an interim control measure. You should redesign manual tasks to allow the use of mechanical equipment, or eliminate the need to lift, if there is a regular need for team handling. Team lifting can increase the risk of MSD if:

  • the load is not shared equally
  • workers do not exert force simultaneously
  • individual workers need to make foot or hand adjustments to accommodate other team members, reducing the force each can exert
  • performed on steps or on a slope where most of the weight will be borne by handlers at the lower end, or
  • individual workers unexpectedly lose their grip, increasing or changing the balance of the load on other team members.

Whenever team handling is used, it is essential to match workers, co-ordinate and carefully plan the lift. You should ensure that:

  • the number of workers in the team is in proportion to the weight of the load and the difficulty of the lift
  • one person is appointed to plan and take charge of the operation
  • enough space is available for the handlers to manoeuvre as a group
  • team members are of similar height and capability where possible
  • team members know their responsibilities during the lift
  • training in team lifting has been provided and the lift rehearsed, including what to do in case of an emergency, and
  • aids to assist with handling (a stretcher, slings, straps, lifting bars, lifting tongs, trolleys, hoists) are used where possible and training is provided in their use.

11.3.11 Training

Training in the type of control measures implemented should be provided as part of an on-going manual task risk control program. Training should be provided to:

  • workers required to carry out, supervise or manage hazardous manual tasks

The training should include information on:

  • how to perform manual tasks safely including the use of mechanical aids, tools, equipment and safe work procedures, and
  • how to report a problem or maintenance issues.

You should review your training program regularly and also when there is change to work processes, plant or equipment, implementation of new control measures, relevant legislation or other issues that may impact on the way the task is performed.

You should keep records of induction and training given to your workers. The records can include information such as the date of the session, the topics dealt with, and the name and signature of the trainer and each of the workers who attended the session.

11.4 Using industrial lift truck (forklifts)

When using forklift truck in the workplace you should:

  • ensure the forklift truck is suitable for the work to be done and is in a safe condition
  • check if work areas are designed, established and maintained for safe operation
  • complete pre-start safety checks, and
  • prepare and follow safe work procedures for operation, shut down and maintenance.

11.4.1 Information, training, instruction and supervision

A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure people who operate forklift truck:

  • hold a valid high risk work licence for the type of industrial lift truck they are operating, recognised by the State or Territory they are operating the plant in.
  • are trained to operate the type(s) of industrial lift truck(s) and attachments they are using, and
  • are provided with information, training and instruction on the hazards, risks and control measures relevant to the workplace.

A person who operates a forklift must hold a high risk work forklift licence. Training to get a high risk work licence must be completed as part of a course from a Registered Training Organisation (RTO). A person training to operate a forklift may operate a forklift at their workplace if they are:

  • enrolled with an RTO to train as a forklift operator, and
  • directly supervised while operating the forklift by a person who has both the right licence to perform the high risk work and suitable workplace experience.

Operators should have easy access to the manufacturer’s instructions to operate forklift truck safely. Specific training on how to operate forklift truck should be provided by a competent person. The training should cover:

  • information on the forklift truck used including:
    • position, function and operating sequence of controls and instruments including seat adjustment controls
    • relevant design features and centre of gravity
    • attachments and components that can be used
    • how to estimate the load centre and mass of the item to be lifted
    • capacity, stability and limitations
  • safety features e.g. guarding, emergency stop controls and warning devices
  • safe work practices that apply to relevant work areas including the safety of pedestrians
  • operating conditions including traffic rules, rights of way and clearances from overhead electric lines
  • procedures for reporting faults, unsafe practices, damage, incidents or near misses
  • inspection, maintenance and repair responsibilities, and
  • emergency procedures.

11.4.2 Traffic management

Most forklift incidents involve pedestrians. Forklift trucks must not collide with pedestrians or other powered mobile plant. You should make sure there are clear, separate pathways for pedestrians and forklifts as far as reasonably possible. High visibility work wear should be worn by people in close proximity to moving plant.

If there is a possibility of an industrial lift truck colliding with pedestrians or other vehicles you:

  • must ensure the industrial lift truck has a warning device that will warn people of the movement of the industrial lift truck e.g. a horn or reversing alarms
  • should provide dedicated loading and unloading areas.

Work areas should be designed and maintained so forklift truck can be operated safely. Some of the control measures to consider and how they can be used are listed in Table 2.

Table 2 Types of control measures and how they can be used

Control Measures Examples of how to use control measures
Barricades Separating pedestrian and traffic areas with physical barriers can prevent pedestrians entering areas where forklift truck are working.
Satisfactory lighting This must be provided, so far as is reasonably practicable including in work areas where forklift truck operate. The area immediately inside a building where forklift truck enter should be well lit to avoid vision problems when passing from bright sunlight into a poorly lit area.
Satisfactory ventilation This must be provided, so far as is reasonably practicable including in work areas where forklift truck powered by Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), petrol and diesel fuel are used so as to minimise the concentration of exhaust gas contaminants. Battery powered forklift truck should be used in poorly ventilated or enclosed areas.
Ramps These should be secure, robust, provided with edge protection, not exceed the manufacturer’s specific gradient for operating the industrial lift truck and be installed at points where an industrial lift truck needs to be driven from one level
to another.
Loading docks Satisfactory edge protection or a system of work to minimise the risk of forklift truck falling or being driven over the edge of a loading dock should be provided. The system could include clearly defined operating areas by line marking at least 2 metres from an exposed edge with the area between the line and the edge declared an industrial lift truck exclusion zone.

11.4.3 Pre-start safety check

Before you operate a forklift, both the forklift and any attachments should be checked. You should be familiar with the operating controls.

A pre-start safety check should be done every time you use a different forklift and at the beginning of each shift, as the forklift may not have been left in a safe condition by a previous operator.

Examples of what to look for can be found in the General guide for forklift truck.

11.4.4 Using seatbelts

Seatbelts and other restraint systems should be used when they are provided unless a risk assessment indicates it is not safe to do so and other risk controls are implemented. Seatbelts keep you in the cab during a tip over and prevent you from being thrown from your seat. Manufacturers’ operating manuals include a warning to use seatbelts. You must be trained in the manual’s instructions, warnings and precautions for restraint system use.

11.4.5 Lifting attachments

You should make sure the forklift is equipped with lifting attachments that are right for the load to be lifted or moved, only if required.

If an attachment is fitted to a forklift, make sure you have access to information about the attachment. By using the forklift load chart and the attachment information (often found on the attachment’s load rating plate) the de-rated load capacity of the industrial lift truck can be calculated.

The attachment should be secured to the forklift as required by the manufacturer’s instructions. Specific training and supervision in the use of an attachment should be provided as necessary.

11.4.6 Operating a forklift

When operating a forklift you should:

  • look in the direction of travel and keep a clear view of the way ahead
  • slow down, seek help from others to direct you or drive in reverse if it safe to do so, if vision is blocked
  • keep body parts within the forklift
  • avoid distracting behaviour e.g. using a mobile phone or smoking
  • be aware of other vehicles and people and give clear indications of your intentions to others e.g. sound the horn to alert other vehicles and pedestrians especially before doorways or where no traffic signs or signals exist
  • drive at a safe speed in line with site speed limits, the load and the existing weather and road conditions
  • drive with the fork arms as close to the ground as reasonably practicable, with the tips of the fork arms tilted slightly upwards and away from the ground, whether driving with or without a load
  • adjust your operating style to match the conditions – the ground surface, weather conditions, layout of the operating area and other hazards that may exist like water
  • avoid speeding up, decelerating and turning too quickly
  • lower the carriage, park on level ground with the load removed, apply the park brake, leave the controls in neutral and shut off the power – locking the start control in the ‘off’ position before getting off a forklift.

11.4.7 Fuel handling and storage

Liquid fuel should be handled and stored in accordance with the relevant standard for the handling and storage of flammable and combustible liquids.

LPG should be handled and stored in accordance with the relevant standards. Forklift truck powered by an LPG engine should be refuelled, parked and stored in well-ventilated areas a safe distance from combustible material, heat sources or ignition sources. Only people who have received proper training should remove empty LPG cylinders from forklift truck and install full LPG cylinders. Cylinders should be placed so the safety relief valve is facing in a direction (usually upwards) which would allow the release of vapour only if the relief valve operates. The LPG cylinder valve should be turned off when the industrial lift truck is not in use.

11.5 Parking and shut down

You must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, an industrial lift truck that is not in use is left in a state that does not create a risk to the health or safety of any person.

When parking an industrial lift truck the operator should:

  • park on level ground with the load removed
  • park in a way that does not block the flow of other traffic
  • apply the park brake
  • fully lower the fork arms and tilt them slightly forward so the tips of the fork arms touch the ground
  • leave the drive controls in neutral, and
  • shut off the fuel line e.g. LPG or power and lock the start control in the ‘off’ position.

When an industrial lift truck is left unattended, the ignition key should be removed or the start control locked off to stop unauthorised people from using it.

11.6 Freight movement.

11.6.1 Heavy vehicles.

Drivers of heavy vehicles must comply with all State and Federal legislation for road transport (Road Transport (General) Act 2005).

For example:

  • Those drivers driving a heavy vehicle over 12T GVM must keep a logbook in accordance with prescribed legislation.
  • Those drivers driving a vehicle over 8T GVM must stop at weigh stations in accordance with prescribed legislation.
  • Those drivers driving a vehicle over 4.5T GVM must adhere to the safe-t-cam legislation

Drivers must ensure they are familiar with all applicable clauses in the current Act and Regulations before driving a heavy vehicle.

11.6.2 Changes to the Chain of Responsibility

Changes to the Chain of Responsibility (CoR) laws are coming in mid 2018. These changes align CoR laws more closely with workplace health and safety laws.

If you consign, pack, load or receive goods as part of your business, you could be held legally liable for breaches of the Heavy Vehicle National Law (HVNL) even though you have no direct role in driving or operating a heavy vehicle. In addition, corporate entities, directors, partners and managers are accountable for the actions of people under their control. This is the Chain of Responsibility (COR).

The aim of COR is to make sure everyone in the supply chain shares equal responsibility for ensuring breaches of the HVNL do not occur. Under COR laws if you named as a party in the chain of responsibility and you exercise (or have the capability of exercising) control or influence over any transport task, you have a responsibility to ensure the HVNL is complied with.

The law recognises that multiple parties may be responsible for offences committed by the drivers and operators of heavy vehicles. A person may be a party in the supply chain in more than one way. For example they may have duties as the employer, the operator and the consigner of goods.

Legal liability applies to all parties for their actions or inactions.

11.6.2.a Who are the parties in the supply chain?

A person who is a party in the chain of responsibility includes, but is not limited to:

  • corporations, partnerships, unincorporated associations or other bodies corporate
  • employers and company directors
  • prime contractors of drivers
  • the operator of a vehicle
  • schedulers of goods or passengers for transport in or on a vehicle, and the scheduler of its driver
  • consignors/consignees/receivers of the goods for transport
  • loaders/unloaders of goods
  • loading managers (the person who supervises loading/unloading, or manages the premises where this occurs).

11.6.2.b When could COR apply?

Some examples include:

  • heavy vehicle driver breaches of fatigue management requirements or speed limits
  • heavy vehicle driver breaches of mass, dimension, or loading requirements
  • where any instructions, actions or demands to parties in the supply chain causes or contributes to an offence under the HVNL. That includes anything done, or not done (directly or indirectly) that has an impact on compliance, for example:
  • schedulers whose business practices place unrealistic timeframes on drivers which cause them to exceed their work rest options
  • loading managers whose business practices, including loading/unloading times, cause the driver to exceed the speed limit.

Parties in the chain must also make sure the terms of consignment or work/employment contracts will not result in, encourage, reward or provide an incentive for the driver or other party in the supply chain (e.g. a scheduler) to break the HVNL.

11.6.2.c Contracts that require a driver to break the law are illegal.

In a prosecution, the courts may consider the actions of each party in the supply chain. This includes what measures those parties have in place to prevent breaches of the HVNL occurring. Each party in the chain must demonstrate to the Court that they took all reasonable steps to prevent the contravention or show the court that there were no steps they could reasonably be expected to have taken to prevent the contravention.

For more details:

11.6.3 Fatigue management

Driver fatigue or drowsy driving is a safety hazard for the road transport industry. The main causes of fatigue are not enough sleep, driving at night (when you should be asleep) and working or being awake for a long time. It is important to be aware of the signs of fatigue.

11.6.3.a Signs of fatigue

A driver must not drive a fatigue-regulated heavy vehicle on a road while impaired by fatigue. Drivers may be impaired by fatigue even when complying with work and rest limits. It is important to spot the signs of fatigue and take a break.

11.6.3.b Your body

  • A lack of alertness
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Making more mistakes than usual
  • Drowsiness, falling asleep or micro-sleeps
  • Difficulty keeping your eyes open
  • Not feeling refreshed after a sleep
  • Excessive head nodding or yawning
  • Blurred vision
  • Mood changes
  • Changes to personal health or fitness

11.6.3.c Your vehicle

  • Near miss or incident
  • Not keeping in a single lane
  • Not maintaining a constant speed
  • Overshooting a sign or line
  • Poor gear changes

11.6.3.d Fatigue-regulated heavy vehicles

National heavy vehicle driver fatigue laws apply to fatigue-regulated heavy vehicles, which are:

  • a vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Mass (GVM) of over 12t
  • a combination when the total of the GVM is over 12t
  • buses with a GVM over 4.5t fitted to carry more than 12 adults (including the driver)
  • a truck, or a combination including a truck, with a GVM of over 12t with a machine or implement attached.

The laws cover all aspects of work and rest relating to heavy vehicles including:

  • work and rest hours
  • recording work and rest times
  • fatigue management exemptions
  • Chain of Responsibility obligations.

At the heart of the laws for fatigue management is a primary duty – a driver must not drive a fatigue-regulated heavy vehicle on a road while impaired by fatigue.

11.6.4 Heavy Vehicle National Law (HVNL)

The National Heavy Vehicle Regulator (NHVR) looks after one rule book for heavy vehicles over 4.5 tonnes gross vehicle mass.


The HVNL and regulations commenced in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria on 10 February 2014. In addition to passing the HVNL, states and territories agreed to four regulations made under the national law. The Northern Territory and Western Australia have not commenced the HVNL at this time. State and territory police, and authorised officers are appointed to enforce heavy vehicle offences under the HVNL.


Some aspects of heavy vehicle regulation remain as they were before the HVNL. Heavy vehicle registration, inspections, driver licensing and all matters related to the carriage of dangerous goods are still the responsibility of the relevant state and territory authorities. Legal and court processes largely remain as they were, before the national law commenced.